The “Everything but Arms” (EBA) initiative, launched in 2001 under the EU GSP, gives LDCs duty- and quota-free access for almost all products (as the name of the programme indicates, weapons and ammunition are excluded). The GATT IV.D.3 decision of 28 November 1979 served as the basis for more favourable treatments for the least developed countries.  The first EBA proposal for an agreement began on 20 September 2000: the European Commission proposed “duty-free access to all products from all least developed countries in the EU”.  Preferential treatment favours least developed countries (LDCs), which, among other things, comply with international human rights conventions; tariff preferences granted to Cambodia have recently been suspended for certain products due to “serious and systematic violations of human rights principles enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”.  Designed to meet the specific needs of the least developed countries, the European UNION “Everything but Arms” (EBA) agreement was put in place in 2001 to grant all least developed countries unlimited access to tariffs and quotas for all their exports, except arms and armaments. At the end of the smooth transition period (31 December 2011), the EU granted Cape Verde the status of “GSP” granting preferential access to the EU market when certain conditions of good governance are met. Samoa, which had adopted LDC status in 2014 (and became a developing country)  was removed from the EBA list on 1 January 2019.  On 16 January 2019, the European Commission decided to reintroduce import duties on rice from Cambodia and Myanmar. This has happened because imports of Indica rice from both countries have increased by 89% over the past five rice seasons. At the same time, prices were significantly lower than in the EU market and had even fallen over the same period.
This increase in cheap imports has created serious difficulties for EU rice producers, as their market share in the EU has fallen considerably, from 61% to 29%.  The WTO Rules of Origin Committee regularly reviews utilization rates under preferential trade agreements for LDCs: see the WTO, the Rules of Origin Committee, utilization rates under preferential trade agreements with least developed countries under the LDC customs system, the secretariat notes. October 10, 2018 (G/RO/W/179). Everything but Arms (EBA) is an initiative of the European Union in which all imports from the least developed countries to the EU are free of duties and quotas, with the exception of armaments. The EBA came into force on March 5, 2001. For bananas, sugar and rice, transitional provisions were introduced until January 2006, July 2009 and September 2009 respectively. The EBA is part of the EU`s Generalised Preference System (GSP).  The current list of all countries receiving such preferential treatment is included in Schedule IV of the consolidated text of the Regulation (EU) 978/2012.  Cape Verde completed its studies on December 20, 2007 in the LDC category.
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