Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that “the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the global average temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements in Brazil. , including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to combat climate change. The Paris Agreement was approved by 195 nations at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris. Efforts to force countries to commit to reducing their emissions began well before the 21st Cop meeting. Article 28 of the agreement allows the parties to withdraw from the agreement after sending a payment notification to the custodian. This notification can only take place three years after the agreement for the country comes into force. The payment is made one year after the transfer.
Alternatively, the agreement provides that the withdrawal of the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, also withdraws the state from the Paris Agreement. The terms of the UNFCCC`s exit are the same as those of the Paris Agreement. There is no provision in the agreement for non-compliance. The Kyoto Protocol therefore has a very large difference between developed and developing countries in terms of emission reduction targets. In 2005, the parties to the Kyoto Protocol established a process to negotiate the future of the Kyoto Protocol (“ad hoc working group” on the additional commitments made by the parties to Schedule I under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP).
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